1- Tchogha Zanbil
Chogha Zanbil is an ancient ziggurat and the first religious building in Iran, which was built during the Elamites era and around 1250 BC.
Chogha Zanbil is part of the ancient civilization.
This building is located near the ancient city of Susa (Shush) in the province of Khuzestan.
It was originally from the Sumerian building, which was built up to worship the gods and is abundant in Mesopotamia.
Its initial altitude was 52 meters in 5 floors. Today its height is 25 meters and only 2 floors and half of it remain.
The Chogha Zanabil substructure is a 105.20 × 105.20 square meter. That is twice the football field.
Inside the ziggurat, the statues of Elamite gods, "Inshoshinak" and "Napirisha" were kept.
The ground around the ziggurat is the carpet bricks. Archaeologists have found some traces of the child's foot on some parts of this carpet brick, the reason for which is still unclear.
On the festivities, Elamite King and his wife came to Dor- Untash city and attended the sacrificial ceremony.
The following text was found in the booklet “ I, Untash Gall, engraved the golden bricks. I set up this bounty for the gods of Gal and the Inshoshinak and presented this holy place. May my work be accepted as a gift for the gods of Gal and the Inshoshinak”.
The world's first urban water treatment plant in this huge ancient structure is one of the most interesting parts of this ziggurat.
The beautiful architecture of the Dor-Untash city also attracted a lot of people.
In 1979, this structure was the first Iranian monument listed on the UNESCO World Heritage site.
2-Perspolis (Takhte- Jamshid)
Persepolis, Parseh or Persepolis is one of the ancient cities of Iran, which has been the capital of the glorious kingdom of Iran during the Achaemenid Empire for many years.
In this ancient city there is a palace called Persepolis, built during the reign of Darius the Great, Xerxes and Artaxerxes I, and was used for about 200 years.
On the first day of the New Year, many groups from different countries, along with various gifts, gathered in Persepolis and they presented their gifts to the king.
In 518 BC, the construction of Persepolis began as the new capital of the Achaemenids in Pars.
The founder of Persepolis was great Darius, after which his son Xerxes and his grandson, Artaxerxes, expanded the collection.
Many existing knowledge about the Achaemenid background and their culture is available due to the carvings and inscriptions that were engraved in these palaces and on the walls and plaques.
The historians believe that Alexander the Great, Macedonian ruler of Greece, invaded Iran in 330 BC, burning Persepolis and possibly destroying a large part of the Achaemenid books, art and culture.
However, ruins of this place still exist.
Archaeologists confirm the signs of fire and invasion in the ruins.
The Sassanid kings also have inscriptions on Persepolis at Tachar Palace.
The Naqsh-e Rustam is located at 6.5 km from Persepolis. In the Naqsh-e Rustam is the tomb of Darius the Great / Xerxes / Artaxerxes I and Darius II.
In Persepolis, in addition to the Naqsh-e Rustam, two tombs are completely finished and there is a tomb in half.
The tombs, located on the slopes of Mount Rahmat and overlooking Persepolis, belong to Artaxerxes II and Artaxerxes III.
In the south of Persepolis, a tomb is abandoned in part, which, according to some archaeologists, belongs to Darius III.
Over time, a number of Columns of the Sadsotun Palace in Persepolis have undergone earthquake events and are still intact. They look integrated at first glance, but in fact they are split and mounted together.
The secret of the pillars' resistance to earthquakes is at the junction of these pieces, where two pillars of the column are connected by a molten lead.
This lead, in addition to tightening the two-piece pillar, plays an important role in the resistance of the structure to the earthquake. The metal lead is malleable and soft, which reacts and does not crack when the earthquake occurs, this is the role that today's buildings have on the springs placed between the columns.
Architects and artists who have been involved in the construction of the Persepolis, decorated the images on the walls in three ways.
One was to attach precious metals to the crown, earrings, necklaces to the pictures and to the holes that were made on both sides of the object.
The second is to write and decorate the main ornaments of clothing, crowns and hats, with a needle, in a very delicate manner, which is, for example, on the Gates of the Darius palace (Tachar) and the royal ladies section.
Third: Painting, of which there are examples Cedaar and Sadsotun palaces.
This historic place was registered in 1979 as one of the UNESCO World Heritage Site.
3. Meidan Emam Isfahan (Naqsh-e Jahan Square)
A beautiful rectangular square with a length of 500 meters and a width of 160 meters, located in the center of the historic site of Isfahan.
This area was built during the Safavid period and is surrounded by such parts as: Two hundred shops each one has two floors, Ali Qapu palace, Shah mosque, Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque and Qeysarie Gate.
This area before the rule of the Safavids was a great garden that was the site of the celebration of Nowruz.
In the 16th century, during the reign of Shah Abbas I and on his orders, Naqsh-e Jahan square and the surrounding buildings was built.
The builders of these buildings were Mohammad Reza and Ali Akbar Esfahani. According to the travelers, in past the square was the place for negotiations between Iranian and foreign governments.
In the following, we will give a brief description of the buildings around the square: 1. Shah mosque:
A mosque with a beautiful architecture that belongs to the Safavid period.
The mosque has four minarets and beautiful tiles and calligraphy on its body.
If you stand under the dome of the mosque, your voice will be reflected
Meidan Emam Isfahan inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1979
Historical castle of Takhte-Soleyman has an area of about 124000 square meters and belongs to the Sasanid dynasty, which dunning the different times was also home to Medes ,Parthians and Mongols.
This historical place contains some parts as Azargoshsb fire Place; King fire place, Fighter fire place, Khosrow porch. Anahita temple, small fire places, gates and strong walls.
All these monuments are surrounded by an oval wall.¬¬
This area is located in middle of beautiful field.
Outer buildings belongs to the sasanid era. Of course, at the time of Ilkhanites they were restored.
Inside these oval walls there are two coherent squares. There is a lake in center of southern square and there is a beautiful fire place in the center of northern square.
There are many towers around the walls. Khosrow porch is located in North West of the lake. This beautiful porch is made of bricks.
Outside of the Takhte-Soleyman, there is a 300-meter-long, 4-meter-high handmade coulee. Locals in the old days called it Stone Dragon. The use of large stones and a lake with permanent water with 112 meter deep are the wonders of this historic site.
The water of this lake has a constant temperature of 21 degree in winter and summer.
You can find this place at Takhte-Soleyman village, west Azerbaijan province ,Iran.
This monument was registered in UNESCO in 2003
Arg-e-Bam Is the largest adobe building in the world. located in Bam, a city in Kerman providence in south eastern of Iran.
This city is second large city in Kerman providence. tourists have compared this magnificent building with Great Wall of China. This city in past was known as Iran’s Paris. In part of the time, it was also the capital of Iran.
Breeding of silkworm and wearing cloth in Bam has old history.
The fabrics were exported to other countries such as Egypt.
It also has a very popular date that has helped the agricultural economy.
Arg-e-bam is located in the northeast of bam city and next to the Silk Road. according to historicans, Arg-e-bam was also residential until the late Qajar period.
Arg-e-bam inscribed in Iran’s national heritage list on 21/march/1966. In addition, it inscribed in UNESCO in 2004.
It should be noted that this beautiful building was badly damaged in 2003 earthquake.
Of course the reconstruction of this building is under consideration by UNESCO countries.
The magnificent Pasargadae collection is one of the remains of Achaemenid era, located in Pasargadae, Fars province,
This unique complex includes monuments like the tomb of Cyrus the great, Pasargadae royal garden, place for general visits, gates, bridges, and private palace. Two pavilions, the royal palace, fountains, the tomb of Cambyses, defenses, Mozaffari Caravansaray, sacred area and Bolaghi gorge.
In 529 BC, Cyrus the great, went to the Scythian war and was killed in the battle against the Massaggets.
Cyrus the great is buried in Pasargadae.
This beautiful Persian palace is located in the hearts of the mountains, and this vast land has been chosen by Cyrus as its command center and he built houses and palaces.
The existence of an Elamite, ancient Persia and Akkadian inscription on the entrances reflects Cyrus taste on this type of architecture.
This huge building was registered in Iran in 1931 and registered in UNESCO on 2004.
Please noted that the Pasargadae historical complex is located on a 3 KM long and 2 KM wiled plate.
This monument is divided into five parts:
1- The first parts is porch or place for mother of Solomon
2-the northwest area ,the holy area
4-The palaces gardens, the water passage, guest places, Cyrus exclusive palace, pavilion and bridge gate.
5-Tomb of Cyrus
The tomb of Cyrus, the most important building of this magnificent complex . IT designed among royal garden, and the length of this tomb is 7meter and it is in form of square rectangle with 7 steps and with 165 square meter area and on the upper floor, there is a small room measuring 5.1 in 5.7 meters for body of Cyrus.
6- Soltaniyeh Dome
Soltaniyeh dome is the world’s largest dome which it has made from sun-dried bricks and it is the third largest dome in the world.
Some believes that in the construction of the great and famous dome of the city of Florence, Italy, the architecture of Soltaniyeh dome has been modeled. The great Soltaniyeh dome was built during 10 years between 1302 and 1312 AD in Soltaniyeh from the cities of the present-day Zanjan province ,the capital of the Mongol Ilkhan dynasty, by 3000 workers and in order of Mongol ruler Eljaito known as sultan Mohammad Khodabande .
Sultaniyeh dome is one of the most famous Iranian and Islamic works in the world of art.
In the main body of the building, the bricks are used and in the dome, bricks with cover of turquoise and azure color are used.
For the first time in this building, you can see tile art in Iranian architecture. It is an octagonal dome and has eight arches; the interior height of the building is 52 meter.
And you can see tile and decorative lines and some other Iranian and Islamic arts inside of it.
This beautiful historic building registered in 2005 in UNESCO.
Bisotun Inscription is the first well-known Iranian text and the largest inscription in the world and it belongs to the Achaemenid period.
This inscription belongs to 520 BC and located on the slopes of mount Bisotun in Hersin city, 30 KM from Kermanshah providence.
This inscription is one the most important documents of Iran and world which on it has been written about triumph of Darius the great, on the Geomat.
Behistun derived from the ancient word "Baghestan" means the position of the gods.
525 lines are in text of ancient Persian Behistun the height of the inscription is 7.80 meter and the length is 22 meter.
On relief of the stone, AHURA MAZDA and Darius are in a ceremony. Darius has a crown, praying with AHURAMAZDA and having a bow in his left hand.
The Geomat is under Darius's right foot and two courtiers are behind Darius, one with a bow and the other with bow arrow holder and both with long beards. And behind the Geomat eight insurgents against the king are seen who are connected with the chain.
The sight of Farvahar is seen above of relief.
Bisotun registered in UNESCO in 2006.
8-Armenian Monastic Ensembles of Iran
These churches include five churches called Thaddeus Monastery,the monastery of Saint Stepanos, Sant Mary church, the chapel of Chupan and chapel of Dzordzor.
1-Thaddeus monastery (Gharra kelisa)
Thaddeus monastery (Gharra kelisa) is located in northeast of west Azerbaijan and in the south of the city of Maku.
It is said that the name of the aspostles of Christ, who came to the south of Armenian plateau to introduce the religion of Christianity and on this journey he found some followers such as daughter of the king of Armenia and some of his member.
It was told that his body was buried in this church.
This church is known as the first catherdal of the world of Christianity .
Armenians of Iran annually gather in this church in late of July on the day of the death of Thaddeus.
2-The Monastery of Saint Stepanos.
The monastery of saint Stepanos is the second most important Armenia church in Iran.
It is located in the province of East Azerbaijan and 17 kilometers from southwest of Jolfa.
This building was built in the ninth century. The name of this church is derived from stepanos, the first martyr of the Christian path.
The architecture of this church is a combination of Parthian and Roman architecture.
The interior of this church is designed in a cross shape and consist of three parts: porch, chapel and altar.
Marvelous decoration, carvings in the store chapel are very sophisticated.
The octagonal bell tower of this building is decorated with highlighting angel, cross, bergamot, star and flowers with eight petals.
3-Saint Mary Church
Saint Mary Church is located in the highlands of sham valley (DAREH SHAM) in the city of Jolfa and along the Aras River in East Azerbaijan province.
The dome of this church is made of bricks and walls made of bricks and mortar.
4-Chapel of Chupan
The church was built in 16th century and restored in 1836.this is probably the place where shepherds of this area worship in it.
The inner covering of this small stone church is plaster and lacks other decorations.
5-Chapel of Dzor Dzor
This beautiful church is located next to a river called Zangimar in the village of baron, in the city of Maku, in west Azerbaijan province.
It was built in 1315 to 1324 by Archbishop Zakaria.
Religions and cultural educations was provided at this church.
The church is a cross-shape building made from cut stone had has beautiful and simple view.
The Armenian Monastic Ensembles of Iran inscribed in UNESCO in 2008.
9-Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System.
These interconnected structures are made of bridges, dams, waterfalls, watercourses, canals and tunnels.
All these canals and tunnels are interconnected. To use water as a force for working industrial water mills. These structures built from Achaemenid period to Sasanid. Famous French archaeologist, Madam Jane Dieulafoy, has named this collection as the largest industrial complex before the industrial revolution. Shushtar historical hydraulic system is located in Khuzestan province and includes the following parts.
2-Kolah Farangi Tower
3-Gargar River, which is handmade river
4-Gargar Dam Bridge.
5-Collection of Waterfalls and Water Mills.
6-Ayar Dam Tower
7-Shushtar Mahi Bazan Dam.
10-Shadrovan Dam Bridge.
11- Khak Dam
12-Dam of Shokr Bridge and Shah Ali Bridge.
According to the historians in Shushtar there were many scholars.
This monument inscribed in UNESCO in 2009.
10- Tabriz Historic Bazaar Complex
Tabriz historic Bazaar (market ) Complex with total length of one kilometer recorded as the world’s largest indoor market.
The market consists of several market, squares and inns.
This beautiful complex is located in the city of Tabriz, the capital of west Azerbaijan.
The exact time of making this market is unclear, but many businessmen and tourists such as
Ibn-e bathuta, Marcopolo, Jean –Sharon, John Kerr Whigt and others over the past thousand years have visited this market and have written about it in their travel logs.
The city had also a booming market due to being on the Silk Road.
This great market during the reign of Abbas Mirza, The Crown Prince of the Qajar king, was the center of business for British merchants who came from Istanbul.
It has also been the center of trade between Iran and central Asia up to 2006.
One of the interesting things for old tourists was the very presence of Armenians as shopkeepers in the Tabriz market, and carpet and silk trade was among the most important trade of this market.
Attractive point in the architecture of this market is the existence of warehouses in lower floors of the chamber and the resting place in the upper floors.
There are also several baths and mosques in this market.
Each part of this market belongs to a specific sector and specialty and named according to the manufacturer's name.
11- Sheikh Safi al-din Khānegāh and Shrine Ensemble in Ardabil
A part from Sheikh Safi al-din Ardebil ,the ancestors of Safavid kings, shah Ismail Safavi (the first king of Safavid )and his wife (mother of Shah Tahmasb), some of the elders and members of Safavid era as well as the Iranian martyrs of the Chaldoran war ,were buried in this shrine.
This beautiful building was built by Sadr al-din Musa ,son of Sheikh Safi al-din in 735 AH.
The most important parts of this shtine are the Mosque, Chinikhane,Janat sara,Khanghah,Chelle khane,Shahidgah,Cheragh khane.
Sheikh Safi al-din‘s house and his Khanegah were in this place and he had made a wish to bury him at the same place after his death.
Then they constructed a building on his grave and in additions to the sheikh and shah Ismail, they also buried other Savafid princes there.
Since the beginning of the Safavid rule, due to the respect of Safavid kings to their ancestor, other parts added to this collection, especially during Shah Abbas, who had a great interest in sheikh Safi.
In this mausoleum, we can see many fine art including tile, mosaic and Mogharnas, adornments of beautiful inscriptions, calligraphy of the great calligraphers (Miremad, Mir Qavameddin and Mir Ismail, etc.) Beautiful and valuable embellishments, silver works, gilding and painting.
During the wars of Iran and Russia during the Qajar era and seizing the city of Ardabil by Russians, Sheikh Safi’s handwritten books went out of Iran and now kept at the Saint Petersburg museum of Russia.
This tomb is located in Aliqapu in city of Ardabil in Ardabil province.
This collection inscribed in UNESCO in 2010.
12-The Persian Gardens.
Persian gardens are gardens built on the basis of architecture and art and its constituent elements ,such as geometric structures, water,
Trees and middle pavilion; and have been prevalent on the plateau of Iran.
In Iranian literature Persian gardens called
‘Bagh Sara” , Pardis , Ferdows or Bostan.
The Persian garden has three unique structure and desighns.
First it is on the waterway. Second enclosed with tall walls.
Third inside the garden there is a mansion with a summer swimming pool.
Iranian gardens have been created with the construction of Qanat (aqueducts) in Iran and these gardens dates back to the Achaemenid period.
In the royal gardens of Pasargadae, the existence of regular geometry became a pattern that we later saw in the Sassanid and Islamic periods.
In the writing of Xenophon, it is said that wherever there was Achaemenid king there were also gardens during Sassanid era this gardening was expanded.
The special place of water and nature in Zoroastrian religion created the conditions for the expansion of Iranian gardens.
Takht-e-Soleyman, Firozabad palace and Behistun are such examples.
In the Safavid era, such gardens started from Qazvin city and with the transfer of the Capital from Qazvin to Isfahan, these gardens continued.
The form of Iranian garden is a regular combination of water and plants and architecture, which is also common in Persian carpets.
Nine Iranian gardens registered at UNESCO, which are list here.
1-Pasargadae Persian Gardens (Pasargadae, Fars province).
2-Eram Garden (Shiraz-Fars).
5-Abbas Abad Garden(Mazandaran province).
7-Dowlat Abad Garden (Yazd).
8-Pahlavanpour Garden (Mehriz).
All these gardens inscribed in UNESCO in 2011.
This 53 m high tower is the tallest tower built entirely of fired bricks.
The tower built in 1006 AD during the reign of Shams al-Ma'ali Qabus Ibn Voshmgyr on a hill at a height of 15 meters. This magnificent building is located in the city of Gonbad-e-Kavos in Golestan province. This building has two parts; the first part consists of the body and the second part consists of a cone dome.
The inscriptions with the Kofi lines are on this dome, indicating the year of construction, the name of the builder and the order of the building.
The outer layer of this beautiful dome is made of special bricks and the inner layer is made of ordinary bricks. The base is 15 meters long and the length of the cone dome is 18 meters. Upper part of entrance also has a simple and beautiful decor of gypsum in the form of Mogharnas, which is one of the first developments in the construction of Iranian architecture. This beautiful and glorious Iranian monument inscribed in UNESCO in 2012.
14-Masjede-e Jame of Isfahan.
Masjed-e Jame of Isfahan is one of the most important and oldest religious buildings in Iran.
This Masjed (mosque) is a mix of byzantine and classical art in the form of a traditional and Islamic building.
This building built on an old mosque.
Construction date of this building back to the Sasanid era, but during the Elboya and Safavid periods, the mosque's building was under developing. Different parts of the mosque have formed over nearly a thousand years and are always under repair and reconstruction.
Also in the northern part of the mosque, the discovery of a pillar base with Sassanid decorations proved the existence of the building in this place before the Islamic period.
Despite all differences, it seems that the beginning of the construction of the mosque date back to the early centuries of the Hijri during the reign of the Abbasid.
In the 3rd century AH, the sanctuary destroyed and the direction of the Qibla has corrected.
This mosque includes various parts including Nizam al-Mulk dome, Chahar Eivan yard and rooms of around it. Mozafari school, Al-Jayatou altar.
Each of them represents the evolution of Islamic art in a special period.
Arthur Pope, the American archaeologist and historian, asked to be burying in Isfahan after his death.
According to him, he had gone there many times to see this mosque and its beautiful dome.
His grave is in the city of Isfahan and near the Zayandehrood River.
This mosque has nine sanctuaries, but altar on the northern side of the western porch is built by Al-Jayatou is an exquisite example of gypsum cutting with flower shapes and other geometric shapes.
This beautiful architectural monument of Iran inscribed in UNESCO in 2012.
15 .Golestan palace .
This beautiful monument is located in the Arg square in Tehran.
This 440-year-old palace is one of the most unique monuments in Iran.
The construction date of this building dates back to the Safavid era and the reign of Shah Abbas the Safavid. Of course, from the Safavid period to the present time, there have been many changes in this palace. This palace was very much considered during the Qajar period, and many changes took place during the 49-year reign of Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar.
These changes were made in particular by Nasir al-Din Shah's order, which was influenced by European art due to his travels to Europe.
The palace was also used for coronation and special occasions during the Safavid period. The Golestan Palace inscribed in UNESCO in 2013.
16. Shahr- i Sokhta (means: burnt city).
One of the most advanced cities in the ancient world.
This large civilization has been in existence for more than 5,000 years and founded in the Bronze Age. Shahr-e Sokhte is located in the civilization of Jiroft, Sistan and Baluchestan province. This city is located on the shores of the Hearmand River and on the side of Lake Hamoon. According to historians, there are remnants of a fire in the city.
Excavations shows, some of the people buried the burned city with cloth and shroud. Fabric discovered in number of graves. In addition to the shroud and dress in the graves, clay objects and other gifts of stone, wood and cloth, there were almost in all graves. In this city, which has become the center of many industrial and artistic activities, there are many adornments.
Finding necklaces and necklaces made of lazuli and gold are the wonders of the people's art in this region. They initially turned gold into thin sheets of less than 1 mm in diameter, and then made wires to cross the lazuli and set the necklace. In this city, we can also see the industry of weaving, mosaic, pottery and so on. Fishing hooks and fishing net have found.
Another wonders of the Shahr-e Sokhte is the existence of water and sewage pipes and the design of alleys and order in urban construction.
Also in this city, an artificial eye found that belonged to the woman's left eye. The pupil designed with very thin golden wires. The age of this eye reaches 2800 Bc.
studies on this eye are still ongoing.
The world's first animation, painted on a pottery, has been found in this city.
These are all the signs of this strange and civilized city of human history.
Shahr-i sokhta inscribed in UNESCO in 2014.
Meymand is a city dating back 8,000 to 12,000 years ago, the oldest human settlement in Iran and the world. The village is completely excavated by the hand of men in the rock.
The surprising thing about this village is that, unlike other villages with same specification that are homeless, people are still living in this village.
This unique village is in the city of Shahr-e Babak, Kerman province. The village built when the Iranians worshiped the sun and the mountains were holy for them. Several thousand years ago, these humans excavated the rocks and left the valuable relic that marks the determination of the ancestors of Iranians.
These rocky houses are probably the winter residence of the nomads of the region. The village has 2560 rooms and villagers have a special tradition and use Sassanid words in their local dialects.
This village is the seventh natural, cultural and historical landscapes of the world that received the Mercouri Prize. This award is grant to unique historical places.
Meymand's bath is also like the houses is hand dug. And the interesting thing about this bath is attention to healthy points that it was used in traditional bathrooms.
The village was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites list in 2015
18. Ancient city of Susa (Shosh)
The ancient city of Susa a 7000 years old city, is one of the oldest settlements in Iran and the world. Susa is located in the province of Khuzestan.
Susa has been the main center of Elamite civilization for thousands of years. And during the Achaemenid period it was also the political capital of this vast empire.
It was one of the most important centers of economic development, production and export of silk during the Sasanid times, along with the two cities of Shushtar and Jondi Shapur.
In the Achaemenid period, due to the importance of the city of Susa, the city had connection to all parts of the world, along with the Pasargadae and Persepolis, and other imperial cities such as Sardis and Lidia, by the "Road of the king" created in the Achaemenid kingdom by Darius. According to historians, many of the ancient objects of the city of Susa transported out of Iran (to France and other countries ) by ferry and railroad..
Nowadays you can find these ancient objects in many museums of the world.
The discovery of the 3500 BC pottery in the city of Susa represents a periodic development of geometric designs and a special style of humans and animals.
The ancient city of Susa includes Shapur Palace, Apadana Palace, the eastern gate, Hadish, Achaemenid village, Shush Mosque and the area of the Islamic period buildings, the Akropole hill and the French castle . Many historical objects, such as the Apadana Palace pillar head, the stone of the Humorabi Law, the winged lion statue and Javidan Darius's Cattle Statue, are now keeping at the Louvre Museum in Paris. The French castle was built during the Qajar era using ancient bricks.
Ancient city of Susa inscribed in UNESCO World Heritage Site list in 2015.
19. Lut desert: the hottest spot in the world.
Lut Desert is the world's twenty seventh largest desert, and the first natural part of Iran, added to the world list. The area of this desert is 175,000 square kilometers, and was the warmest spot in the world between 2004 and 2009. The hottest recorded temperature is 70.7 degrees Celsius and is related to 2005. The following interesting phenomena can be found in this sandy desert:
1. The biggest yardang of the world.
2.The world's tallest natural sandstone pyramids with a height of 480 m
3. There are 40 volcanic cones in the Lut desert.
4. A vast area of sand with a wide range of colors from light brown to gray and black.l
5. Large areas of cold lava from basalt with numerous cavities such as Gandom Beryan region
6. Extensive parts of the flowing sand.
7.The world's largest Nebkas. Nebkas are sandy hills covered with plants.
8.The biggest Rebdous
9. Salt polygon parts.
10 Desert of Pashotori ( footprint of camel):
The area has a name for this because it always looks like it's wet and the footprints of the camels are left there.
11. Hammada: Sandy areas, without any vegetation.
In archeological excavations, interesting potteries was discovered in this area, painted with soil. The age of these pottery, found in the city of Shahdad in Kerman, dates back to the third and fourth millennium BC. Dishes made of marble, lime and metal have also been discovered.
The drying of the water in the summer creates white areas of salt, which creates a view similar to the snowy and Polar Regions.
The Lut Desert inscribed in UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2016.
20. Iranian Qanat (aqueducts)
Qanat means the canal.
The date of the construction of the Qanat dates back to the first millennium BC in Iran. Construction of aqueducts, especially in arid and mountainous areas, allows farmers to access and manage water resources.
The knowledge of the construction of the Qanats gradually transferred from Iran to other countries as well. Already in many countries, such as China and Morocco, and even the United States, there are Qanats.
To construct the aqueduct, people first dig a well in a sloping environment that as the main well. Then, other wells dig in the direction of the main well and dig into distinct distances and in the same direction. Then, by cutting the sloping channel between these wells, they all connect. With this method, without using a pump or other means, water will transfer to the ground, and the water reaches for public or agricultural use without evaporation and waste.
Below is a brief introduction of Iran's inscribed aqueducts.
1. Gonabad: This is the deepest Iranian aqueduct with depth of 350 meters
2. Zarej Yazd: Iran's longest aqueduct with a length of 100 km and 2115 wells
3 Moon Qunat ,Ardestan: The only two-level aqueduct in the world is about 800 years old.
4 Hassan Abad Qanat in Mehriz Yazd: About 700 years old.
5. Qanat Baladeh in Ferdows Khorasan: belonging to the Sassanid period.
6. Qanat Vazvan in Meymand: With underground dams.
7.The Jopar Qanat in Kerman belongs to the Safavid era, 750 years old
8.Ebrahim Abad Qanat in Arak:
One of the oldest Iranian aqueducts.
9 Ghasem Abad and Akbar Abad Qanats in Bam Kerman: The First Iranian Twin Qanat.
These Iranian aqueducts added to the UNESCO World Heritage Site List In 2016.
The world's first brick city and the second most historic city in the world.
Yazd has the tallest wind catcher in the world.
The city of Yazd has been added to the UNESCO World Heritage list due to its historic architecture and its traditional and intact structure.
Yazd means holy and pure.
Yazd people worshiped only the God in history.
The presence of beautiful and active monuments in the city has caused many tourists to visit Iran each year to visit this city.
The wind catcher is one of the signs of Iranian civilization, which was first made in Yazd and Kerman cities for the purpose of air conditioning and cooling of air in hot areas of Iran.
These wind catchers carry warm air outside and pass it through the pools underneath them, then through cool air valves into the building.
Yazd's most famous and largest wind catcher can be found in the Dowlatabad Gardens of Yazd. The Dowlatabad Gardene wind catcher is designed with an octagonal design and a height of 33 meters. It is one of the best architectural designs.
The beautiful and historic city of Yazd inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2017.
23. Sassanid Archaeological Landscape of Fars Region
The eight archaeological sites situated in three geographical areas in the southeast of Fars Province: Firuzabad, Bishapur and Sarvestan. The fortified structures, palaces and city plans date back to the earliest and latest times of the Sassanian Empire, which stretched across the region from 224 to 658 CE. Among these sites is the capital built by the founder of the dynasty, Ardashir Papakan, as well as a city and architectural structures of his successor, Shapur I. The archaeological landscape reflects the optimized utilization of natural topography and bears witness to the influence of Achaemenid and Parthian cultural traditions and of Roman art, which had a significant impact on the architecture of the Islamic era.
The eight archaeological sites are : Qal'eh Dokhtar , Ardashir Investiture Relief , Victory Relief of Ardashir, Ardashir Khurreh, Palace of Ardashir, located in Firuzabad . City of Bishapur and Shapur cave located in Bishapur . Sarvestan Palace located in Sarvestan
Sassanid Archaeological Landscape of Fars Region inscribed in UNESCO IN 2018